Right To Clean Environment Recognized By UN
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♦ The right would be first recognized 70 years after the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted in 1948 by the UN General Assembly.
♦ The Right was first started in the 1972 Stockholm Declaration.
♦ The resolution was followed by a campaign led by 13000 civil society organizations & indigenous peoples’ groups, 90,000 children, private sector stakeholders and the Global Alliance of National Human Rights Institutions.
♦ This resolution highlights the “Rights to life, liberty and security” of human rights defenders working in environmental matters. They are referred to as environmental human rights defenders.
♦ The resolution also called on nations to expand their facilities to improve the environment.
♦ The right was passed by 43-0. Four member states, i.e. India, China, Japan and Russia, were refused.
Concerns of Environmental defenders
♦ Environmental defenders worldwide are controlled by repeated physical aggression, legal claims, arrests, and slander campaigns.
♦ This the UNEP has deepened its responsibility to protect and improve environmental human rights defenders in times to come.
United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC)
♦ UNHRC is a United Nations organization that attempts to support and defend human rights worldwide.
♦ The council comprises 47 members, and they are elected for three-year terms on a localized group basis. Its headquarter is in Geneva, Switzerland.