Lipulekh Boundary Issue

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18 January 2022 Current Affairs:Nepal claims the Lipulekh, Kalapani, and Limpiyadhura territories and asked that India evacuate its troops from the area since India is expanding the route to the Lipulekh pass.


  • India currently controls the three territories of Kalapani, Lipulekh, and Limpiyadhura. Nepal claims ownership of the land.
  • According to Prime Minister Narendra Modi, India is preparing to extend the road to the Lipulekh pass. During his December 2021 visit to Haldwani, he spoke these things. Since then, the border problem has revived.
  • Nepal published a new political map in 2020. The Limpiyadhura regions were included the Kali river’s source mainly.
  • In the Susta region, there are also boundary conflicts between India and Nepal. The Gandak River has changed course, causing this conflict.

Sugauli Treaty

  • British India and Nepal signed treaties in 1816. It was established after Nepal was defeated in the Anglo-Nepal war.
  • As per the treaty, British India will own the whole lowlands between Rapti and Kali. On the other hand, the ridgeline was not mentioned in the contract.
  • The British performed the following surveys to determine the source of the river Kali in several places. The dispute between the nations is about the region’s boundary.


  • The Lipulekh pass in the Kalapani area is strategically vital for the Kailash- Manasarovar pilgrimage.
  • As per Nepal, the Kali river’s source is at Limpiyadhura, at high heights of the Himalayan ranges. 
  • As a result, Nepal owns the entire hill and the Limpiyadhura section. The border starts in Kalapani, which is where the river begins.
  • The river is said to have its origins in the springs of Lipulekh Pass in India. The Kalapani was on the Indian side, according to administrative records from the 19th century.

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