♦ The Western Himalayan temperate forests of Uttarakhand are home to a large number of endemic bird species.
♦ Six main types of land use were studied, including natural oak forests, degraded oak forests (light use), lopped oak forests (heavy use), pine forests, agricultural planting areas, and places with buildings.
♦ The results revealed that species diversity was low in monoculture areas and urban areas.
♦ It also observed a significant decline in some of the habitat guilds in areas where land-use change occurred.
♦ Habitat guilds are groups of bird species that prefer similar habitats.