Climate Of India During 2021

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22 January 2022 Current Affairs:On January 21, 2022, the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) released its “Climate of India during 2021” report.

Highlights:

  • According to reports, the year 2021 was the fifth warmest in India since national records began in 1901.
  • In 2021, India posted a loss of 1,750 lives due to extreme weather events. With 350 deaths, Maharashtra was the worst-affected state.
  • Among extreme weather events, lightning and thunderstorms claimed the most lives (787), followed by floods, heavy rains, and landslides, which killed 759 people.
  • In 2021, 172 people died as a result of cyclones in various states.
  • According to the report, 11 of the 15 hottest years in India occurred during the last fifteen years, from 2007 to 2021.
  • The greatest warming was observed in 2016. The year reported a 0.71 degree Celsius increase above the “long period average (LPA)” based on the 1981-2010 period.
  • Based on 1961-2010 data, India’s annual rainfall in 2021 was 105 percent of its LPA
  •  The southwest monsoon season rainfall in India as a whole was ‘normal,’ at 99 percent of LPA, while the northeast or post-monsoon season rainfall (October-December) was ‘above normal,’ at 144 percent of LPA.

Mean Temperature

  • The annual mean land surface air temperature in India in 2021 was 0.44 degrees Celsius higher than the LPA. 
  • Winter (January to February) with +0.78 degree C mean temperature anomalies and post-monsoon (October to December) with +0.42 degree C mean temperature anomalies were the main contributors to this warming. 
  • Other seasons, such as pre-monsoon (March to May) and monsoon (June to September), were also reported “above normal,” with average temperature oddities of +0.35 degrees C and +0.34 degree C, respectively. 
  • During the period 1901-2021, the annual mean temperature in India increased at a rate of 0.63 degrees Celsius per 100 years. 
  • The rise in India’s mean surface temperature appears to be synchronized with the rise in the global mean surface temperature.

Standardized Precipitation Index

  • In its annual report, the IMD also gathered the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Based on precipitation, SPI is used to monitor drought conditions. 
  • The index is negative in dry conditions and positive in wet conditions. 
  • The cumulative SPI values for the past twelve months of 2021 highlight “extremely wet – severely wet conditions” in parts of the A&N Islands, West Bengal, Odisha, Bihar, Jharkhand, East Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Uttarakhand, Chandigarh, and Delhi, among other places.
  • “Extremely dry – severely dry” conditions were reported in Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Mizoram, and Manipur, among other places.

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