The World Bank has released a report. The report included coverage of the Himalayas, Karakoram, and Hindu Kush (HKHK) mountain ranges.
♦ Black Carbon (BC) is a pollutant with a short lifetime.
♦ It is the second largest cause of global warming after carbon dioxide (CO2).
♦ Unlike other greenhouse gas emissions, BC is quickly washed out of the atmosphere and can be eliminated if emissions are reduced.
♦ It has two effects on the rate of glacier melt:
♦ By lowering the surface reflectance of sunlight.
♦ By increasing the temperature of the air
♦ Full implementation of current BC mitigation policies can achieve a 23% reduction, but enacting new policies and regional cooperation among countries can yield even greater benefits.
♦ In India, one such policy is the National Mission on Sustaining Himalayan Ecosystem (NMSHE). It is one of eight missions outlined in the National Climate Change Action Plan (NAPCC).