Article 311 of the Indian Constitution
♦ Article 311 states that no government employee, whether from the central government or a state government, may be fired or suspended by a subordinate authority to the one who appointed him or her.
♦ Section 2 of the article states that no civil servant shall be dismissed, suspended, or demoted from his or her position unless and until he or she has been told of the charges and has been given a fair opportunity to be heard on those charges.
♦ If a government employee is convicted in a criminal case, he may be fired without DE under Article 311 (2) (a).
♦ A government employee may be fired under 311 (2) (c) if the President or Governor, as the case may be, determines that it is not in the best interests of the state to conduct such an investigation.